Fourth Year

Course for 4th Year B.S. (Honors) in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology

  1. Organization of  eukaryotic genome
  • Evolution of complex genome
  • Content of the genome; Interrupted gene; Gene and gene number; Gene mapping; Gene amplification, Clusters and Repeats
  • Repetitive DNA and its relevance to plants and animals, Inverted and tandem repeats; Evolution of globin genes; Polytene and Lamphbrush chromosome
  • Regulation of chromatin structure; Insulator and anti-insulator


  1. Molecular biology of the telomere and telomerase
  • Structure and functions of telomere and telomerase
  • Biogenesis of telomerase
  • Significance of telomerase in cancer and aging.


  1. The dynamic genome
  • Mobile genetic elements in eukaryotes (jumping genes) – relevance to plants and studies in maize; Transposons; Catalytic introns
  • Targeting the mobile genetic elements of disease.


  1. Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression
  • Structure and complexity of RNAs
  • Activating transcription complex: enhancers and repressors;  Locus control region. Nuclear receptors and response elements; enhancers and repressors
  • Co-Activators/Co-Repressors Locus control region. Nuclear receptors and response elements;  Interrupted genes and RNA splicing
  • Expression of specific genes: Genes for ribosomal RNA; Histone genes; Globin genes; Heat-shock genes; Leghaemoglobin genes; Genes for storage proteins of legumes and cereals; Repetitive DNA in control of gene expression.


  1. Structural and regulatory RNA
  • rRNA; tRNA; Biogenesis of rRNA & tRNA; RNA editing
  • Regulatory RNA; Riboswitching; Catalytic RNA and ribozyme
  • RNA splicing and processing; Introns; Antisense RNA
  • RNA interference; miRNA; sRNA; siRNA; ncRNA; lnc RNA; tm RNA; eRNA; piwiRNA; snRNA etc.


  1. Protein localization and dynamics
  • Protein translocation; Translocon; Membrane localization; Sec system
  • Homeostasis of cellular proteins; Proteasome, ClpP protease; Protein splicing; Molecular chaperones and protein folding; Unfolded protein response
  • Transport of molecules between nucleus and cytosol; Signal peptide and signal recognition particle
  • Transport across ER, Golgi, Mitochondria and chloroplast;  Nuclear pore complex; Nuclear localization signal; Nuclear import and export model.


  1. Epigenetics
  • Concepts of epigenetics; Mechanisms of DNA methylation, methyl CpG recognition and demethylation, mechanisms of various histone modification
  • Chromatin reader and domain; Structural properties of HMTs and HDMs; Histone modification patterns of active and silenced gene
  • Chromatin remodeling through chromatin regulatory factors (CRFs); Polycomb silencing mechanisms and the management of genomic program
  • Epigenetic regulation of cancers; Histone onco-modification; Epigenetic drugs for cancer treatment.


  1. Genomic imprinting
  • Concept; Mechanism of imprinting: DNA methylation, chromatin modification, chromosomal position effect; chromatin insulators.


  1. Regulation of gene expression in heterologous system and in cell
  • Heterologous transgene expression in animals
  • Tissue-specific promoters; Selectable and screenable markers; Cloning vectors; DNA delivery; Fusion proteins.


Suggested readings:


  1. Jocelyn E. Krebs. Lewin’s Genes XI. 2012. Jones and Bartlett Learning.
  2. Alberts, B. Bray, D. Lewis, J. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 5th edition. 2007. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York.
  3. Wolfe, S.L. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 1st edition. 1993. Wardsworth Publishing Company.
  4. Tollefsbol, T. Handbook of Epigenetics. 1st edition. 2010. Academic Press.
  5. Esteller, M. Epigenetics in Biology and Medicine. 1st edition. 2008. CRC Press.
  6. Woodward, T., James, G. The Mysterious Epigenome: What Lies Beyond DNA. 1st edition. 2011. Kregel Publications.


Additional reading materials and internet learning resources will be suggested by the course instructors.

  1. General principles of cell signaling
  • Extracellular signal molecule and their receptors
  • Action of signaling molecules
  • Cellular response by different cell types
  • Signaling by nitric oxide (NO), Nuclear receptor, Ion channel linked, G-protein- linked and enzyme-linked receptors
  • Signal relay by cell surface receptors; Intracellular signaling proteins as molecular switches, Role of scaffold proteins
  • Modular binding domain and signaling protein interaction, Desensitization to signal molecules.


  1. Signaling through G-protein-coupled receptors
  • Structure of G-protein and G-protein-coupled receptors
  • Activation of G-proteins; cAMP and G protein signaling
  • Regulation of G-protein activity, cAMP-dependant protein kinase (PKA)-mediated signaling
  •  Inositol phospholipids signaling pathway, Ca2+ as a intracellular messenger
  • Ca2+/calmodulin-dependant protein kinase signaling
  • Regulation of ion channels by G-proteins
  • Sensory transduction in vision, olfaction and gestation
  • Amplification of  extracellular signals, Desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors.


  1. Signaling through enzyme-coupled receptors
  • Classification of enzyme-coupled receptors
  • Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Docking sits for proteins
  • Activation and regulation of Ras, Activation of MAP kinase signaling module
  • Insulin receptor-mediated signaling, PI 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway
  • Cytokine receptors and the JAK-STAT pathway
  • Receptor Ser/Thr kinases and TGF-ß signaling pathway


  1. Signaling in microorganism and plants
  • Two component signaling pathway of bacterial chemotaxis
  • Detection of ethylene by plants through two-component system and MAPK cascade.


  1. Signaling pathways depending on proteolysis
  • Activation of Notch receptor by cleavage
  • Frizzled receptors and Wnt signaling
  • Hedgehog signaling in Drosophila; NF-kB dependant signaling pathway
  • Cleavage of signaling proteins by matrix metalloproteinases
  • Cleavage of amyloid precursor and Alzheimer’s disease


  1. Regulation of cell cycle by protein kinases
  • Activation of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) by cyclin
  • Regulation of CDKs; Controlled degradation of cyclin
  • Regulated synthesis of CDKs and cyclins


Suggested readings:


  1. Molecular Biology of the Cell by Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts and Peter Walter. Gerald Science. 5th edition. 2007.
  2. Molecular Cell Biology by Harvey Lodish, Arnold Berk, Cris A Kaiser, Monty Krieger, Matthew P Scott, Hidde Ploegh and Paul Matsudaira. WH Freeman and Company. 6th edition. 2007.
  3. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry by David L Nelson and Michael M Cox. WH Freeman and Company. 5th edition. 2008.
  4. Biochemistry of Signal Transduction and Regulation by Gerhard Crauss. Wiley. 5th edition. 2014.
  1. Signal Transduction: Principles, Pathways and Processes edited by Lewis Cantley, Tony Hunter, Richard Sever and Jeremy Thorner. CSH Press. 1st edition. 2014.


Additional reading materials and internet learning resources will be suggested by the course instructors.


  1. Defense against infectious agents
  • Immunity to viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasitic infection.


  1. Immunodeficiency
  • Primary immunodeficiency: B and T cell deficiency
  • Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
  • Deficiencies of complement proteins
  • Secondary immunodeficiency
  • Immunodeficiency caused by drugs, mutation, and immune response; AIDS.


  1. Immunological tolerance
  • Features and mechanisms of immunological tolerance
  •  Experimental induction of tolerance; T and B-cell tolerance; Artificially induced tolerance; Therapeutic application of tolerance.


  1. Autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases
  • Association of autoimmunity with diseases
  • Genetic factors, pathogenesis, etiology, diagnosis and treatment.


  1. Transplantation and rejection
  • Barriers of transplantation; Host vs graft response; Graft vs host reactions
  • Hyperacute and chronic rejections; Role of T-cell in rejection
  • Genetic predisposition to graft rejection; Prevention of rejection,
  • Xenogenic transplantation and bone marrow transplantation.


  1. Immunity to tumors
  • General features of tumor immunity
  • Tumor antigens, their characterization and detection; Immune response to tumors
  • Evasion of immune responses by tumors; Immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy for tumors.


  1. Hypersensitivity reactions
  • Coombs and Gell classification of four types of hypersensitivity reactions
  • Type I: IgE-mediated hypersensitivity; IgE cross-linkage and biochemical events in mast cell degranulation; Role of T-cell in immune response to inhalant allergens; Genetics of allergic diseases; Factors influencing the symptoms of allergic disease; Asthma and bronchial reactions to inhalant antigens
  • Type II: Causes; Mechanism of cell damage; Reaction against blood cells and platelets; Reaction against tissue antigens; Hemolytic diseases of newborn
  • Type III: Causes and mechanisms; Experimental models of immune-complex disease; Removal of immune complexes; Deposition and detection of immune-complexes
  •  Type IV: Overview of DTH; Types of DTH: Contact hypersensitivity, tuberculin-type hypersensitivity, granulomatous hypersensitivity; Cellular reaction in type IV hypersensitivity; Diseases manifesting delayed hypersensitivity.


Suggested readings:


  1. Immunology by David Male, Jonathan Brostoff, David B Roth and Ivan Roitt. Mosby Elsevier. 7thedition.  2006.
  2. Roitt's Essential Immunology by Peter J Delves, Seamus J Martin, Dennis R Burton and Ivan M Toitt. Blackwell Publishing. 11th edition. 2006.
  3. Cellular and Molecular Immunology by Abul K. Abbas, Andrew H Lichtman and Shiv Pillai. Saunders Elsevier. 6th edition. 2009.
  4. Kuby Immunology by Judith A Owen, Jenny Punt, Sharon A Stranford and Patricia P Jones. WH Freeman and Company. 7th edition. 2013.


Additional reading materials and internet learning resources will be suggested by the course instructors.


  1. Introduction to molecular diagnostics
  • Brief introduction to molecular diagnosis
  • History and evolution of molecular diagnostics as it transformed the medicine.


  1. Sample collection and preservation
  • Types of sample (blood, buccal cells, sputum, amniotic fluid, CVS etc)
  • Collecting and handling samples; Sample storage strategies; Characterization of samples.


  1. Molecular diagnostic techniques
  • Hybridization based techniques; PCR;  Real-time PCR; Direct sequencing
  • Combination techniques; PCR-Electrophoresis, PCR-Hybridization, PCR-Hybridization (PCR-SSP, PCR-SSOP) , PCR-RFLP, PCR-Capillary Electrophoresis, PCR-sequencing
  • QF-PCR, Other techniques, Primer extension method;
  • Karyotyping; Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH); Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH); DNA microarrays.


  1. DNA-based molecular diagnostics and their applications
  • Principles of DNA extraction and quantification
  • Detection of viral pathogens (HBV, HPV etc); quantitation of viral copy number; Genotyping of viral strains (HBV); Bacterial pathogen (MTB, Shigella, Salmonella,  E. coli etc)
  • Diagnosis of genetic diseases; α and β thalassemia, Fragile X Syndrome, Cystic fibrosis; Tansplantation genetics; HLA-A, B, DR typing, Molecular cytogenetics; Detection of chromosomal abnormalities (tisomy 13, 18, 21 & sex chromosome abnormalities).


  1. RNA-based molecular diagnostics and their applications
  •   Necessary precautions while working with RNA; Isolation of RNA from clinical samples; Preparation of cDNA; Northern blotting and reverse-transcription PCR
  • Detection of viral pathogens (HCV, HIV influenza virus); Genotyping of viral strains (HCV)
  • Detection of the expression of oncogenes (Her2/neu, BRCA1/BRCA2, N-myc); Quantitative expression of fusion transcripts (BCR-ABL, PML-RARA, TEL-AML).


  1. Future molecular diagnosis
  • Personalized medicine; Warfarin sensitivity (CYP2C9, VKORC1 genotyping)
  • Beta blocker metabolism (CYP2D6 genotyping)
  • NGS in clinical diagnosis.


  1. Issues related to molecular diagnostics
  • Ethical, legal and social issues
  • Informed consent; Confidentiality and discrimination; Genetic counselling; Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis.


Suggested readings:


  1. Molecular Diagnostics: For the clinical laboratorian. William B Coleman & Gregory J Tsongalis. 2nd Edition. Humana Press, 2012.
  2. Molecular Diagnostics. George P. Patrinos and Wilhelm J. Ansorge. 2nd edition. Academic Press. 2009.
  3. Molecular Diagnostics: Fundamentals, methods and clinical applications. Lela Buckingham. 2nd Edition. F.A. Davis Company. 2011.
  4. Human Molecular Genetics. Strachan & Read. 4th Edition. Garland Science. 2010.


Additional reading materials and internet learning resources will be suggested by the course instructors.

  1. Overview and History of Forensic DNA Typing
  • Brief overview of forensic science; Pre-DNA era; Early forensic markers; Blood typing; Serum protein typing; Serum enzyme typing
  • Discovery of DNA fingerprinting; First use of DNA to solve an immigration dispute; First use of DNA in solving a crime.


  1. Basic genetic principles
  • DNA Polymorphism; Minisatellite sequences or Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTRs)
  • Microsatellite sequences or Short Tandem Repeats (STRs); Biology and  nomenclature of STR markers
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs)
  • Mitochondrial DNA variations; Y-Chromosome variations; X-Chromosome STRs
  • Insertion-Deletion polymorphisms (InDels); Amelogenin: the sex typing marker.


  • Biological specimen
  • Collection preservation and transportation of blood, semen, saliva, tissue, bone & teeth samples
  • Presumptive tests for blood, semen and saliva.


  1. DNA extraction and quantitation from forensic samples
  • DNA extraction by organic method, Chelex method,  FTA Card, Differential extraction, Spin columns, magnetic beads etc
  • DNA Extraction from liquid blood, soft tissues, bone, teeth, buccal cells, semen, blood stains, semen stains etc
  • DNA quantitation by spectrophotometry, fluorometry, slot-blot, real-time PCR etc


  1. DNA typing methods
  • DNA Profile: Definition (DNA fingerprinting/ DNA typing/ DNA testing)
  • Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism (RFLP); Single locus and multi-locus DNA typing; Allele specific oligonucleotides (ASO)
  • Analysis of minisatellites by PCR; Current DNA typing method
  • STR based DNA analysis; DNA detection methods: silver staining, fluorescent dyes
  • Capillary electrophoresis: principles and Instrument platform for capillary electrophoresis e.g 310/3100 Genetic analyzer
  • NGS in forensics.


  1. Applications of DNA Profiling
  • Identity test; Parentage test; Sibship analysis; Kinship analysis
  • Identification of disaster victims/missing persons
  • Resolving immigration and inheritance disputes.


  1. Statistical issues
  • Calculation of allele frequency; Calculation of forensic efficiency parameters
  • Calculation of Random Probability of Match (PM)
  • Calculation of Paternity Index (PI); Probability of paternity
  • Calculation of Sibling index and Likelihood ratio
  • PopAffiliator; Online calculator for individual affiliation to a major population group.


  1. DNA database
  • Allele frequency database
  • Convicted offender database; Crime-scene database; Missing person’s database
  • Benefit of DNA database
  • International DNA databases: NDNA, CODIS, YHRD, EMPOP etc.


Suggested readings:


Forensic DNA typing: Biology, Technology and Genetics of STR Markers, JOHN M. BUTLER (2nd Edition) Elsevier Academic Press.


Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA typing: Interpretation, JOHN M. BUTLER Elsevier Academic Press

Additional reading materials and internet learning resources will be suggested by the course instructors.

1.Overview of ‘Omics’ Sciences:Scopes, resources and application


  1. Comparative Genomics
  • Fundamentals of sequence analysis; sequence alignment methods: local and global alignment concepts; dot matrix, dynamic programming methodology; Needlham-Wunsch and Smith-Waterman algorithm. Scoring/substitution matrices: PAM and BLOSUM. Statistics of alignment score. Heuristic methods for data base searching - BLAST and FASTA. Multiple sequence alignment: applications, position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs), profiles, and hidden Markov models (HMMs). Heuristic algorithms for alignment (progressive, iterative and block-based).
  • Genome comparison and genome evolution: algorithm of large scale genome alignment


  1. Evolutionary Genomics
  • Phylogenetic analysis, Model of nucleotide evolution; Jukes-Cqantor;  Molecular clock; Methods of building a phylogenetic tree: distance based (UPGMA, Neighbour-Joining) and character based methods (Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood)
  •   Phylogenetic tree evaluation and comparison strategies:Bootstrapping, Jackknifing, Kishino-Hasegawa and Shimodaira-Hasegawa test


  1. Structural Genomics and Proteomics
  • Protein motif and domain architecture, Sequence-structure mapping and protein folding, forces and interactions 
  • Protein sequence predictions: Ab initio, homology based and threading
  • Protein identification and quantification: 2D gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry/MALDI-TOF, other arrays, yeast 2-hybrid system, ICAT
  • Protein-DNA recognition: Models and algorithms.


  1. Functional Genomics
  • Gene expression quantification and functional analysis: basic concepts, applications of microarray
  •    Experiment & probe design of DNA microarray; Image analysis; Normalization algorithms for single and dual channel data; Quality control measures
  •  Batch affect and it's removal; Differential expression; Microarray data visualization techniques and clustering algorithms; Enrichment/functional over-representation analysis.


  1. Basic Network Biology
  •       Gene regulation,and function, conservation, detecting regulatory elements,
  •      Evolution of networks: Basic Graph theory; Terminologies and properties in network biology;Network motif & modules; Topological and statistical features; Network construction visualization, analyses, integration, and analysis tools.


Suggested readings:


  1. Discovering Genomics, Proteomics, & Bioinformatics. Campbell & Heyer. 2ndedition. 2007. Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co.
  2. Bioinformatics – databases and systems. Edited by Stanley I. Letovsky. 1stedition. 2013. Springer publications.
  1. Bioinformatics - A practical Guide to  the analysis of genes and proteins. Edited by Andreas D. Baxevanis, B.F. Francis Ouellette. 3rd Edition. 2009. Wiley-Interscience.
  2. Essential Bioinformatics by Jin Xiong. 1st edition. 2006. Cambridge University Press.
  3. Bioinformatics. Andrzej Polanski A. Marek Kimmel. 1st edition. 2007. Springer.
  4. Structural Bioinformatics. Edited by Philip E Bourne. Helge Weissig. 1st edition. 2003. Wiley-Liss.
  1. Bioinformatics & Functional Genomics. Pevsner J. 2nd edition. 2009. Wiley-Blackwell.


Additional reading materials and internet learning resources will be suggested by the course instructors.

  1. Microbial production of therapeutic agents
  • Biopharmaceuticals – Isolation of interferon cDNAs; Engineering human interferon and human growth hormone
  • Optimizing gene expression; Enzymes: DNase I, alginate lyase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase;
  • Therapeutics produced and delivered by intestinal bacteria
  • Monoclonal antibody as therapeutic agents; Production of antibodies in E. coli; Nucleic acids as therapeutic agents
  • Strategies for testing genetic disorders; Clinical trials and its phases.


  1. Synthesis of commercial products by recombinant microorganisms
  • Restriction endonucleases
  • Small biomolecules -Ascorbic acid, Indigo, amino acids, Antibiotics, Biopolymers.


  1. Bioremediation and biomass utilization
  • Microbial degradation of xenobiotics
  • Commercial production of fructose and alcohol; glycerol production
  • Silage fermentation; Utilization of cellulose.


  1. Plant growth-promoting bacteria
  • Effects of microorganisms on plant growth
  • Genetic engineering of nitrogenase gene cluster
  • Engineering oxygen level; Modulation of plant hormone by bacteria
  • Phytoremediation; Ice nucleation and antifreeze proteins.


  1. Microbial insecticides
  • Advantages and disadvantages of biopesticides
  • Isolation, modification and diverse application of Bt toxin
  • Genetic modification to improve baculoviruses; Insecticidal properties. 


  1. Large scale production of proteins from recombinant microorganisms
  • Generalized scheme of large scale fermentation process
  • Basics of batch, fed batch and continuous culture
  • Properties of stirred tank, bubble columns and airlift reactor
  • Cell harvesting and product recovery.


  1. Vaccines
  • Subunit vaccines – Herpes simplex virus, Foot and mouth disease
  • Peptide vaccines; Genetic immunization; Attenuated vaccines – Cholera, Salmonella
  • Vector vaccines – vaccines directed against viruses and bacteria.


  1. Microbial food and beverage production
  • Production of beer, wine, distilled beverages and vinegar
  • Microbial food products; Role of microbes in Dairy products (e.g. cheese, yogurt, butter, butter milk); Flavors
  • Single cell protein; Microbial biomass proteins; Probiotics.


  1. Renewable Energy

Biomass as a source of energy, Biomass conversion

Alcohol- the liquid fuel

Gaseous fuels- Biogas and Hydrogen.


  1. Immobilized cells and enzymes
  • Methods of cell and enzyme immobilizations
  • Advantages; use of immobilized cell systems for the production of industrially important chemicals.


  1. Microbial ore leaching
  • Leaching microorganism and their properties
  • Practical applications of bacterial leaching
  • Biochemical and chemical reactions in leaching
  • Extraction of copper by microbial leaching.




Suggested readings:


  1. Glick, B. Pasternak, J. Patten, C. Molecular Biotechnology Principles and Applications. ASM Press. 4th edition. 2009.
  2. Rehm, H. J., and G. Reed (Editors). Biotechnology. VCH Publication. All volumes. 1990.
  3. Primrose, SB. Modern Biotechnology. Blackwell Science Inc. 1st edition. 1987.
  4. Fogarty, W., Kelly, C. Microbial Enzymes and Biotechnology. Springer. 2nd edition. 1990.
  5. Bu’lock, J., Kristiansen, B. Basic Biotechnology. Saunders College Publishing. 1st edition. 1987.
  6. Gibson, D. Microbial degradation of organic compounds. CRC Press. 1st edition. 2002.
  7. Lizuka, H. Microbial conversion of steroid and alkaloids. Springer-Verlag. 1st edition. 1981.
  8. Laskin, A. Enzymes and immobilized cells in biotechnology. Butterworth-Heinemann. 1st edition. 1985.
  9. Davis, P. Single-cell protein. Academic Press Inc. 1st edition. 1975.
  10. Reed, G. Prescott & Dunn's Industrial Microbiology. CBS Publisher. 1st edition. 2004.
  11. Kumar, H.D. A Textbook on Biotechnology. Affiliated East-West Press. 2nd edition. 1991.


Additional reading materials and internet learning resources will be suggested by the course instructors.

  1. Plant tissue culture
  • Introduction; Media preparation; Sterile techniques and laboratory equipments
  • Plant growth regulators in plant tissue culture and development; Shoot and root culture
  • Plant protoplast culture, haploid culture, embryo rescue and development of polyploidy
  • Propagation from non-meristematic tissues-organogenesis and nonzygotic/somatic embryogenesis.


  1. Molecular approaches of plant development
  • Molecular aspects of in vitro organogenesis and non-zygotic/somatic embryogenesis.


  1. Plant molecular markers and their applications
  • Principles of identification and application of molecular markers
  • Genotyping tools in plant breeding- from restriction fragment length polymorphisms to single nucleotide polymorphisms
  • A model crop species- molecular markers in rice
  • From markers to cloned genes: map-based cloning; genomic analysis in crop breeding.


  1. Breeding strategies based on markers
  • Marker-Assisted Selection for quantitative trait loci
  • Optimum design of marker-assisted backcross programs
  • Examples of marker assisted selection in rice, maize, wheat, soybean, etc.


  1. Plant genetic engineering
  • Agrobacterium mediated transformation
  • Protoplast mediated transformation; Micro-projectile bombardment
  • Other DNA transfer methods: Ti and Ri plasmids
  • Role of GFP in plant genetic engineering
  • Genetic manipulation of herbicide resistance, pest resistance, disease resistance, stress tolerance, improved crop yield and productivity
  • Metabolic engineering for molecular farming.


  1. GM Crops
  • Application, development and Current statusCotton, Brinjal, Maize, golden rice, soyabean and canolla etc.


  1. Biotechnological approaches for improvement of medicinal plants
  • Current trends in forest tree biotechnology
  • In vitro regeneration and improvement in tropical fruit trees.


  1. Germplasm preservation
  • Importance of germplasm preservation
  • Preservation of seed propagated species; preservation of pollen; preservation of vegetatively propagated species- active collection and cryopreservation.



Suggested readings:


  1. Principles and practices in plant science by Walton P.D.. Prentice Hall. 7thedition 2001.
  2. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants By Buchanan B, Gruissem W, Jones R. Wiley. 1stedition. 2002.
  3. Plant cell culture (advance in biochemical engineering/biotechnology) by Anderson LA. Springer. 1stedition. 1985.
  4. Introduction to plant biotechnology by Chawla S. CRC Press. 3rdedition. 2009.
  5. Handbook of Plant Biotechnology by Chistou P, Klee H. Wiley. 1stedition. 2004.
  6. Plant Biotechnology and Agriculture: Prospects for the 21st Centuryby Altman A, Hasegawa P. Academic Press. 1stedition. 2011.



Additional reading materials and internet learning resources will be suggested by the course instructors.


  • Scope and applications of animal biotechnology.


  1. Animal cell and tissue culture
  • Basics of animal cell culture: culture media, culture of mammalian cells, tissues and organs; Primary culture; Secondary culture
  • Continuous cell lines; Somatic cell cloning and hybridization
  • Transfection and transformation of cells
  • Organ culture and whole embryo culture
  •  Application of animal cell culture in production of human and animal viral vaccines and pharmaceutical proteins; Cord blood banking.


  1. Embryo transfer technology
  • Advantages and application of embryo transfer
  • Steps in embryo transfer technology
  • Selection and management of donor and recipients
  • Insemination of donor; Collection, identification and evaluation of embryo
  • Cryopreservation of embryo; Transfer of embryo; Limitations of embryo transfer techniques. 


  1. Ruminant   fertilization
  • Uses of in vitro fertilization
  • Different fertilization mechanisms
  • Harvesting and maturation of oocytes
  • Collection and capacitation of sperm
  • Fertilization and development of embryos to a transferable stage.


  1. Transgenic animal
  •  Transgenic mice; Production of transgenic mice: retroviral vector method, DNA microinjection method, engineered embryonic stem cell method
  • Genetic modification with cre-loxp recombination system; Transgenic mice applications


  1. Cloning
  • Cloning of sheep cattle and endangered animals
  • Organ cloning, Cloning livestock by nuclear transfer
  • Production of transgenic cattle, sheep goats, birds and fish.



  1. Ethics in animal biotechnology
  • Animal welfare, sentiency and speciesism
  • Problems with nature and naturalness
  • Religious concerns; Risk of animal biotechnology
  • Ethical issues and concern; Human subjects, Animal model


Suggested Readings:


  1. Reproductive Technologies in Farm Animals by Ian Gordon. CABI publishing. 1st edition. 2005.
  2. Animal Biotechnology by Srivastava. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company Pvt. Limited.  1st edition. 2005.
  3. Animal Biotechnology and Ethics by Alan J. Holland & Andrew Johnson. Springer. 1st edition. 1997.
  4. Animals as Biotechnology: ethics, sustainability and critical animal studies by Richard Twine. Routledge. 1st edition. 2010.
  5. Molecular Biotechnology: Principles & Applications of Recombinant DNA by Bernard R. Glick, Jack J. Pasternak, Cheryl L. Patten. ASM Press. 4th edition. 2009.


Additional reading materials and internet learning resources will be suggested by the course instructors.


  1.    1. Environmental biology and man
  • Global climate changes and its impact on living beings
  • Greenhouse gases, increase of COand effect
  • Rise of temperature; Ozone hole; El Nino and oscillations in world’s climate
  • Desertification, Global warming.


  1. GMOs
  • GMOs currently in commercial production
  • Future trends in GMOs; Principles for the safety assessment of GM foods
  • Food security; The challenges to food security; Attaining food security.


  1. Risk of GMOs
  • Direct and indirect effects on human health, agriculture and environment
  • Social and ethical concern about GMOs


  1. Biosafety regulations
  • Biosafety act of Bangladesh; Risk assessment and risk management
  • Physico-chemical and biological containments-procedure and facilities (BSL I, II, III and IV)
  •  GLP; GILSP; Frameworks for risk assessment; Biohazard communication.


  1. Environmental pollution
  • Pollution of air, water, soil, and sound; Acid rain
  • Transfer of harmful compounds through ecosystems
  • Nuclear winter and its consequences
  • Metal pollution: source of metals, metal bioavailability in the environment, metal toxicity, mechanism of microbial metal resistance & detoxification, innovative microbial approaches to the remediation of metal contaminated aquatic system with special reference to arsenic, chromium, lead and mercury; Nitrate and Phosphorus pollution and their bioremediation.


  1. Recalcitrant molecules and its management
  • Characteristics and sources of recalcitrant molecules in the environment
  • Persistence and biomagnification of xenobiotic compounds
  • Bioremediation of contaminated soil and water bodies.


  1. Biosensors
  • Characteristics and components of biosensor
  • Application of biosensors for the detection of environmental pollutants.


  1. Biotechnological aspects of waste management

Industrial and domestic solid waste and effluents treatment

Safe disposal; Biogas production

Role of enzymes and microorganisms.


  1. Environmental laws
  • Environmental legislation and regulation
  • Environmental ethics.


Suggested Readings:


  1. Environmental Biotechnology (Vol. 10) by Wang, L.K., Ivanov, V., Tay, J.-H., Hung. Humana Press. 2010.
  2. Advanced Environmental Biotechnology by S. K. Agarwal. APH Publishing. 1st edition. 2005.

3.    Environmental laws & regulations by University of California College. 2009.

4.  Textbookof Environmental Biotechnology by Mohapatra, P.K. International publishing House Pvt Ltd, India. 1st \ edition. 2006.

  1. Microbial Ecology: Fundamentals and Applications by Ronald M. Atlas & Richard Bartha.  The Benjamin-Cummings publishing company. 4th edition. 1997.
  2. Biosafety Guidelines of Bangladesh. MOF, GOB, 2007.
  3. Advances in Biotechnological Processes by A. MizrahiA. L. van Wezel. Alan R. Liss Inc. 2011.
  4. Biotechnology for Waste Management and Site Restoration by Ronneau, C., Bitchaeva. Springer. 1st edition. 1997.
  1. Biology and the Future of Man by Handler, P. Oxford University Press. 1st edition. 1970.


Additional reading materials and internet learning resources will be suggested by the course instructors.

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