Genetic Engineering is the applied aspects of Molecular Biology which is the very basis of all living species. Molecular Biology deals with the molecular basis of biological or genetic specificity. It has three components: Biochemistry, Genetics & Cell Biology. Broadly Genetic Engineering means the manipulation of genes under controlled laboratory conditions. Gene cloning which includes the isolation and characterization of single genes and reintroduction and expression of these genes into cells of same or different species, is the main focus of Genetic Engineering.
“Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services”. Here, the biological agents include microbial, animal or plant cells and enzymes that are used to synthesize, degrade or transform materials. The scientific and engineering principles are mainly Biochemistry, Microbiology, Genetics and Biochemical & Chemical Engineering. The most recently developed skills in present day Biotechnology is Genetic Engineering.